Five Years On - Glossary

This covers both terms specific to Anglia Polytechnic University and general terms within U.K. Further and Higher Education.
Access courses
These are further education courses, broadly equivalent to A-Levels but aimed at "non-traditional" students such as mature, part-time students with no background in further or higher education, and are designed to prepare students for entry to higher education.
Anglia College Enterprises (ACE)
A wholly-owned subsidiary of the University which carries out commercial ventures.
Advanced Further Education. Generally post-A-Level and synonymous with higher education.
Anglia Higher Education College was formed on 1st April 1989 by the merger of CCAT and EIHE and subsequently became Anglia Polytechnic and then Anglia Polytechnic University.
(GCE) A-Level
General Certificate of Education Advanced-Level. Most commonly taken about age 18 after two years of study, either at a Further Education college or at a school Sixth Form (secondary school finishing at age 16 with GCSEs).
Anglia Polytechnic
The Secretary of State (then Kenneth Clarke) upon advice from PCFC, approved Polytechnic designation for Anglia Higher Education College on 23rd April 1991, formally commencing on May 1st 1991. Anglia had just achieved CNAA Accreditation and had already satisfied the numerical criteria.
Anglia Polytechnic University
The Privy Council awarded university status to the Polytechnic on 17th June 1992, formally commencing on September 1st.
Brentwood College of Education
Merged with Chelmsford School of Science and Art to form Chelmer Institute of Higher Education.
Binary Policy
A 1966 Government paper introduced the "Binary Policy" of establishing Polytechnics - the so-called binary divide of higher education into the University and Polytechnics. This divide was removed by the Further and Higher Education Act 1992.
Business and Technical Education Council. A national body which validates vocational courses, generally Ordinary or Higher National Certificates or Diplomas and now NVQs and GNVQs.
Cambridgeshire College of Arts and Technology. See "CCAT - A Brief History". Now APU's Cambridge Campus. See also:
Chelmsford School of Science and Art
The original institution on the Chelmsford Central Campus. Subsequently Mid Essex Technical College and School of Art, Chelmer Institute of Higher Education and Essex Institute of Higher Education.
Chelmer Institute of Higher Education. Formed by the merger of Brentwood College of Education and Mid Essex Technical College and School of Art.
City Polytechnic
City of London Polytechnic, subsequently London Guildhall University and London Metropolitan University. The proposed three-way merger is described in Mike Salmon's and Ken Swinhoe's articles.
Council for National Academic Awards. The body which awarded higher education degrees for those bodies without their own powers of awarding (those not Universities), such as CCAT and EIHE, and validated their HE courses. Created as a result of the Robbins Report to replace the National Council for Technological Awards. The 1985 Lindop Committeee on Academic Validation in Public Sector Higher Education suggested a reduced role for CNAA and the Government agreed it should have a continuing role in validation of courses but that there should be much greater delegation to colleges through the development of acceditation procedures.
CNAA Accreditation
The CNAA visit to Anglia on 20th February 1991 led to its Council meeting on 11th April recommending acceditation for Anglia, removing the last obstacle to Polytechnic designation.
Colleges of Higher Education (as opposed to Polytechnics and Universities).
Collier Road
Still one of the entrances to the Cambridge Campus but the main entrance moved to Broad Street, just off East Road, when the Helmore Building opened in 1983.
Cambridge Regional College. Formerly Cambridge College of Further Education. In the 1990s moved from a large number of small campuses, mostly in the East Road area, to a new green-field campus at the northern edge of Cambridge at King's Hedges but retaining its large Brunswick site near East Road.
Danbury Park
Now APU's Danbury Park Conference Centre. In the 1970s and early 1980s it was part of the Anglian Regional Management Centre of North East London Polytechnic, and CCAT linked with it to run Management courses. See also "The Birth of Danbury", doubts about inclusion in APU's assets (Essex LEA claiming it was not part of EIHE).
Department of Education and Science. Subsequently the Department for Education. The Science part of the department (responsible for science policy and the Research Councils) was transferred in May 1992 to the new Office of Public Service and Science as the Office of Science and Technology.
Department for Education - the Government department responsible for Education. In 1995 this was merged with the Employment Department to form the Department for Education and Employment, headed by the Secretary of State for Education & Employment.
Education Reform Act 1988
This Act allowed the larger higher education colleges and Polytechnics to become independent of Local Education Authorities, as Corporations. It required the LEAs to hand over agreed assets to the new Institutions. It also created the Polytechnics and Colleges Funding Council and the Univerities Funding Council.
"Education - A Framework for Expansion"
The 1972 White Paper envisaged a 50% expansion in FTEs, particularly in the Polytechnic sector.
European Economic Community, subsequently the European Community and since the Treaty on European Union known as the European Union.
Essex Institute of Higher Education. See "EIHE and Beyond". Formerly Chelmer Institute of Higher Education.
Further and Higher Education Act 1992
Removed the binary divide in Higher Education under the HEFCE and other funding councils. Granted Further Education and Sixth Form Colleges independence from Local Education Authorities, funded by the Further Education Funding Council.
Further Education Funding Council. Created by the Further and Higher Education Act 1992. Allocates Department for Education funding to Further Education institutions.
Four Counties
The counties of Cambridgeshire, Essex, Norfolk, and Suffolk form the East Anglian region.
Full-Time Equivalents. For students, calculated as the number of hours of study per year relative to a full-time student (currently 20 hours x 30 weeks). For staff, calculated as the hours worked per week relative to full-time staff (currently 37 hours for support staff).
General National Vocational Qualifications are an extension of NVQs within the NVQ Framework. They are equivalent to four GCSEs (level 2 GNVQs), two A-Levels (level 3 GNVQs), and higher education degrees (level 4 GNVQs).
General Certificate of Secondary Education. At the end of (compulsory) secondary education at age 16, pupils normally take a number of these in various subjects.
Harry Browne
CCAT Lecturer in History and Librarian, subsequently Head of the Faculty of Arts and Languages. Author of the 1958 pamphlet "The First Hundred Years" to celebrate the centenary of the founding of the Cambridge School of Art.
Higher Education Corporations
A special type of non-profit corporate body ("hec") created by the Education Reform Act 1988 for higher education bodies.
Higher Education Funding Council for England. Created by the Further and Higher Education Act 1992 to replace the PCFC and UFC for England. Since 1st April 1993, it allocates Department for Education funding to Higher Education institutions. There are equivalent bodies for Scotland (SHEFC) and Wales (HEFCW) and in Northern Ireland funding comes directly from the Department of Education of the Northern Ireland Office (DENI).
Homerton College
Was an independent (HEFCE-funded) teacher training college in Cambridge, with degrees awarded by Cambridge University, until 2001 when it became a College within the University.
Humberside, East Anglia and Dorset
These three regions had no Polytechnic provision in 1989 and had strong contender Colleges. As of April 1990 Humberside College and Dorset Institute had CNAA acceditation (unlike Anglia) but did not meet the numerical criteria (which Anglia did). All three were invited to apply for Polytechnic designation by PCFC in May 1990. In June Humberside College was accepted as meeting all the criteria and Dorset Institute was accepted as having in-built growth ensuring compliance in September. Anglia had to wait for CNAA accreditation. The University of Humberside is now the University of Lincoln.
Incorporation and merger
At midnight on 31st March 1989 CCAT and EIHE were incorporated separately as Higher Education Corporations under the PCFC. CCAT, having reached agreement with its LEA over assets, then sold them to EIHE and the two bodies merged to form AHEC at 00:01 on 1st April 1989.
Instalments of post-War building on the Cambridge Campus:
Local Education Authority:
Cambridgeshire County Council, Shire Hall, Cambridge
Essex County Council, Shire Hall, Chelmsford
Manpower Services Commission. An agency of the Department of Employment, formed in 1974, which organised (amongst other things) vocational training for the unemployed, and following a 1984 White Paper "Training for Jobs" organised vocational qualifications. This function has now been taken over by the National Council for Vocational Qualifications.
Mid Essex Tech
The Mid Essex Technical College and School of Art, subsequently Chelmer Institute of Higher Education.
National Advisory Body for Public Sector Higher Education. Advised on the allocation of Department of Education and Science funding for AFE courses. Created in 1981 in response to the Oakes Committee Report, following a change of Government and a consultative paper. Replaced by the PCFC.
National Vocational Qualifications are qualifications for work, defined within the NVQ Framework. There is always a significant element of work experience involved. They are awarded by bodies such as BTEC.
Non-Advanced Further Education. Generally GCE A-Level and equivalents.
National Council for Vocational Qualifications. The July 1986 White Paper "Working Together in Education and Training" established the NCVQ to oversee all vocational qualifications in England and Wales, such as NVQs and GNVQs via the NVQ Framework.
National Vocational Qualification Framework
This is defined by the NCVQ. It aims to improve the quality of training and bases qualifications on competence and standards.
North East London Polytechnic
Subsequently the Polytechnic of East London and now the University of East London.
Office of Public Service and Science. The Government office responsible in the early 1990s for public service (the Civil Service), science and technology policy and related matters such as the Citizen's Charter and Open Government initiatives. It also contained: Source: "Computing", 25-Jun-1992
Office of Science and Technology. The Government office responsible for science and technology policy. Part of the Office of Public Service and Science.
Oakes Committee Report
March 1978, on the Management of HE in the Maintained Sector. This led to the formation of the National Advisory Body.
"The Organisation of Technical Colleges"
The 1956 White Paper which defined four categories for distribution of resources:
Polytechnics and Colleges Funding Council. Created by the Education Reform Act 1988 to replace the NAB. Now merged with UFC to form the HEFCE in England. Allocated Department of Education and Science funding to Polytechnics and Colleges.
Polytechnic Designation
The PCFC decided at its meeting of 27th Sept. 1989 on the following criteria for recommending Polytechnic designation to the Secretary of State:
  1. Size: 4000 full-time HE students, 1500 part-time HE students (home and EC)
  2. Level of work: two-thirds of the 4000 to be first degree and postgraduate
  3. Range of work: 300 full-time students in 5 of the 9 PCFC programme areas
  4. Regional considerations: in a marginal case, where an applicant does not meet the quantitative criteria, the lack of a Polytechnic in the region will be taken into account.
The Privy Council
The formal Executive (as opposed to Legislative or Judicial) body of the United Kingdom, exercising the Royal Perogative in commission. Its members have the title "Right Honourable". In practice Government decisions are made by Ministers, the Cabinet and its committees, with perhaps formal endorsement by the Privy Council.
Research Councils
The Research Councils are the channel through which the Department of Education and Science and now the Office of Science and Technology channels public funding for research projects.
From 1st April 1994:
In 1995 control was transferred to the Department of Trade and Industry and a Minister for Science.
Rivermead Campus
A new 8.7 hectare campus on the outskirts of Chelmsford, at the junction of Essex Regiment Way and Rectory Lane.
Robbins Committee
The 1961 Robbins Committee report "Higher Education" set the scene for a huge expansion of higher education in both University and LEA sectors. One of its recommendations was that Colleges of Advanced Technology be given University status, removing them from LEA control. Another was the founding of the CNAA.
John Ruskin 1819-1900
An English critic and social theorist; a founder in 1868 of what was to become CCAT. He became the first Professor of Art in England when he was appointed Slade Professor of Fine Art at Oxford University in 1870.
Sandwich courses
A mode of delivery intended for those in full-time employment in which the student attends during term time on a full-time basis.
Schools of Nursing
The Schools of Nursing in Essex hospitals were transferred from District Health Authorities to APU's Faculty of Health and Social Work.
School of Radiography
The Addenbrookes Hospital (Cambridge) School of Radiography were transferred from the Area Health Authority to APU's Faculty of Built Environment, Science & Technology, physically moving in Summer 1994.
Sinclair Building, Cambridge Campus
This started as a mineral water bottling factory in the 1880s and in 1982 was converted by Sir Clive Sinclair to be his headquarters. It became Anglia property on 1st April 1989 as part of incorporation.
Slough College of Higher Education, now part of Thames Valley University.
Unit Cost Budgeting. Introduced by Cambridgeshire LEA in 1987, it reckoned costs in terms of NAFE costs in NAFE-only institutions and thus penalised CCAT due to its "Seamless Robe".
Univerities Funding Council. Created by the Education Reform Act 1988. Successor to the University Grants Committee, now merged with PCFC to form the HEFCE in England. Allocated Department of Education and Science funding to Universities.

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